Nilo-Ethiopian Studies No.12

Nilo-Ethiopian Studies No.12 (2008)



Nilo-Ethiopian Studiesの1993年〜2003年の号については、JST(科学技術振興機構)のJournal@rchiveにても公開されています。
JST Journal@rchive


HIROKI ISHIKAWA

The war discourse of the Hor, comprised of idioms that provide them with meanings related to waging war, diverges considerably from the Hor's present interethnic relationships with their neighbors. Since the end of the 19th century, the Hor have lived under Ethiopian state rule but have tried to maintain their cultural and political autonomy by constructing and upholding a patriarchal "tradition" (aada). This "tradition" includes sets of discourses and rituals, among which the war discourse is one of the most important. This paper analyzes the war discourse and demonstrates how it functions to consolidate the Hor's patriarchal tradition. As interethnic relationships have changed, new idioms have been added, even though the discourse appears authentic and unchanging. While deterioration of the Hor's relationship with the neigh boring Borana animated the war discourse in the 1990s, changes to the discourse also reflect challenges
to Hor tradition from within.

Keywords: discourse, Ethiopia, Hor, tradition, warfare


MAKOTO NISHI

Since the 1990s, the idea of participation has become a popular norm in implementing development cooperation. Community-based organizations (CBOs) are widely thought to promote local democratic participation effectively in the development process. However, the potential relationship between CBOs and development agencies raises questions about the relationship between a CBO and the people whom it claims to represent. Determining whether the organization benefits only the local elite or provides a discussion forum among groups with different positions is critical.
The Gurage Road Construction Organization (GRCO), which has been operating since 1962, is one of the most successful CBOs in Ethiopia. It was established in Addis Ababa as an association of Gurage migrants from southern Ethiopia to raise funds for the construction of roads and schools in their homeland. GRCO acquired a wide support base through negotiations with members of urban and rural communities. GRCO leaders sought not only to construct massive public works in their villages but also to develop alternative social relationships for the fairer redistribution of development funds.

Key words: community-based organization, development, ethnicity, redistribution


TOMOHIRO SHITARA

I have studied Italian colonial buildings in Gondar, Ethiopia, continuously since 2003. In my previous research, I clarified the total number of Italian colonial buildings, the concept of the Italian urban master plan, and the distribution, height, construction materials, construction methods, current conditions, and ownership status of Italian colonial buildings. Here, I focus on the spatial formations of and construction methods for Italian colonial residences and the divisional formation of Italian residential areas. During the colonial period, four Italian residential areas were constructed. These areas were distinguished clearly by dweller type in terms of profession:
high officials, officials, soldiers, and civilians. Italian colonial residences involved three types of construction methods, i.e., prefabrication, masonry, and reinforced concrete construction, which are subdivided into 10 types of principal structure. The use of each type of principal structure was distinguished by the dwellers' profession. Italian colonial residences involved three types of building, i.e., detached house, row house, and dormitory, and contained various rooms, e.g., living and dining rooms (L&D), bedrooms, kitchens, toilet and bathrooms, corridors, and
verandas. Most residences had both verandas and corridors. Furthermore, Italian colonial residences involved seven types of layout; most were organized into three of the most common ("V→C→X, L&D", "V→L&D→C→X," and "V→L&D→X". corridor (C); living and dining room (L&D); veranda (V); and bedroom, kitchen, toilet and bathroom, or other space (X)).

Key words: colonial architecture, construction method, Ethiopia, Gondar, Italy, spatial formation


SAYURI YOSHIDA

Under the present Ethiopian government, social discrimination is a human rights issue. Despite the national policy of the right to self-determination launched by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, the Manjo, a socially discriminated minority who live in the western Kafa and eastern Sheka zones, feel that they are being deprived of this right. In 2002, the Manjo attacked the Kafa in an attempt to put an end to this discrimination. Knowledge of the circumstances surrounding the Manjo uprising is essential for understanding the conflict. This article describes these circumstances and the changes brought about by the incident.

Keywords: Kafa, Manjo, social discrimination, minorities, conflicts


YUKIO MIYAWAKI

The war discourse of the Hor, comprised of idioms that provide them with meanings related to waging war, diverges considerably from the Hor's present interethnic relationships with their neighbors. Since the end of the 19th century, the Hor have lived under Ethiopian state rule but have tried to maintain their cultural and political autonomy by constructing and upholding a patriarchal "tradition" (aada). This "tradition" includes sets of discourses and rituals, among which the war discourse is one of the most important. This paper analyzes the war discourse and demonstrates how it functions to consolidate the Hor's patriarchal tradition. As interethnic relationships have changed, new idioms have been added, even though the discourse appears authentic and unchanging. While deterioration of the Hor's relationship with the neighboring Borana animated the war discourse in the 1990s, changes to the discourse also reflect challenges
to Hor tradition from within.

Keywords: discourse, Ethiopia, Hor, tradition, warfare

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