Nilo-Ethiopian Studies No.10 (2006)
All three branches of the Nilotic language family use t.he ‘singulative’ formation in nominal morphology.
In the Proto-Western Nilotic language, singulative forms were derived from stems by attaching suffixes -0 or -nO; the suffix -nO was attached to st.ems ending in a voiced stop consonant. The alveolar nasal of the suffix nasalized the preceding voiced consonant.
In Eastern Nilotic languages, singulative forms are derived from stems by attaching a number suffix -l/-i, which is accompanied by a formative suffix -Ak/-ok; they can also be derived by attaching a number suffix -A/-o, which is sometimes accompanied by a formative suffix -(V) t. The velar voiceless stop consonant becomes an alveolar nasal intervocally.
In Southern Nilotic languages, singulative forms are derived from stems by attaching a suffix -(y )a:n.
Other examples, such as ‘cattle’, ‘animal’, and ‘people’ use suppletion to distinguish singular from plural forms. The singular forms of these nouns originated from archaic singulative forms in the Proto- Nilotic language. For example, in the Maasai language, En-kltEng’ ‘cow’: PN *(kwl)-r, Eg-Ak-l (singulative) > (kwJ)-r, Eg-An-I > (kwl)-r, Eg-n-I > (kwl)-r, Eng’-n-I > (kwl)-r, Eng’-l > (kwl)-r, Eng’
Key words: Historical linguisLics, ilotic, nominal morphology, Proto-Nilotic, siugulative
Research on historical architecture is critical before structures are lost to demolition or decay, a risk that is particularly great in rapidly growing developing countries. The historic town of Gondar, Ethiopia, features a wealth of historical architecture, including a palace registered as a UNESCO World Heritage property, traditional houses, and Italian-style buildings constructed during the Italian occupation. However, while researchers have examined many of these structures, the Italian buildings have not been previously researched. Here, I focus on Italian buildings in Gondar and attempt to clarify their historical background, current condition, and important issue for protection.
I found that 352 Italian buildings still exist in Gondar. These buildings have helped form the urban core of the city, functioning as public. commercial. and residential spaces, and have also influenced later Ethiopian modern architecture through construction techniques passed on from Italian to Ethiopian engineers. Currently, 83% of the Italian buildings are owned by governmental sectors (i.e., the government, kebeles [wards], and the Rental Housing Administrative Authority). To preserve these historic structures, it is necessary to cooperate with governmental sectors. and further research will be necessary to devise cooperative protection strategies.
Key words: Architectural preservation, Ethiopia, Condar, Italian Buildings, Urban planning
We examined representations of time among Gabra Miigo pastoralists in southern Ethiopia. Time was represented by changes in nature. cultural symbols, and social matters, although coherent knowledge of time representations was unequally distributed within Gabra Miigo society. We discuss how knowledge of time representation has changed and how modernization and Islam have affected this knowledge. Knowledge of time representations that regulate the age system has -faded as the influence of Islam has grown. However, time representations that serve to retain historical memories are gaining social value in the modern context. Those who are well informed in such time representations have become “experts” and have begun to act as leaders. Gabra Miigo society, which was traditionally acephalous, is becoming a more top-down and centralized
Key words: Gabra, modernization, re-Islamization, change, knowledge, time